High temperature pipelines or cross country pipelines which are
transporting fuel and crude oil often use alloy steel grade B-7, B-7M grade
stud bolts for flange joints.
Stud bolts are
available in multiple diameters and lengths combinations, metric and imperial,
and in a variety of materials from carbon steel to alloy, stainless and
nickel alloys (common grades are: ASTM A193 B7, L7, B8, B8M, B16, Alloy
20, Monel, Hastelloy, Inconel, 17-4PH, titanium, etc.).
The material of the hex steel nuts shall match
the material of the threaded rod (generally, stud materials ASTM A193 match
with nuts materials ASTM A194).
The ASME B16.5 specification covers stud bolts and nuts for ASME flanges